Pyramid pyramids in the history

Pyramid pyramids in the history

The accurate origin of the word "pyramid" is unclear. The Per-em-us, the Ancient Egyptian term which means "direct", seems more suitable, than Greek пирамис (a wheaten pie), the comic descriptive term for these new monuments. "Obelisk" occurs from obelisks, the Ancient Greek word designating the small twisted.
In any case the antiquity of pyramids shakes. The Greek historian Herodotus who already then considered pyramids old, has visited them in 450, and it from time of construction of pyramids separated as much centuries, how many we separate from it. Era of pyramids was only an episode of history of a civilisation of Pharaohs in trekhtysyachelet-it, which достигнула own zenith in two hundred years which inevitable decline has followed. Therefore the subsequent dynasties looked at work own протцов with awe. Fourteen centuries later after burials of the Old kingdom have been profaned for the first time by thieves, the dynasty to Sat (XXVI) has collected that remained, has replaced the disappeared bodies with substitutes and перезахоронила own predecessors, observing the most ancient rituals which were already unclear by then.
Era of pyramids has begun in Sakkara in the XXIX century BC when the designer of the Pharaoh of the third dynasty Imkhotep has developped мастабу (tomb) and has made the first step pyramid. In process of development of technology attempt to convert other step pyramid in Meyduma in the real pyramid has been undertaken, having covered its lateral surfaces with a smooth covering, but this project, apparently, has appeared unsuccessful, and through certain time the pyramid has fallen off under the weight. In coordination with one of theories, it left during construction of that became «An inclined pyramid» in Dakhshura, and has demanded quick a configuration of a tilt angle of its lateral surfaces. the 1st real pyramid with the rovnenky parties, apparently, the subsequent which has been constructed, – the Reddish pyramid in Dakhshura. It was followed by Stately pyramid of Cheops in Giza which became a top of pyramidal architecture. After 2 more perfect pyramids in Giza fields of pyramids in Abu Sir and Southern Sakkara and to more late pyramids in the Fayyumsky oasis were given less resources and attention. The subsequent pyramids never reached trio standards in Giza.
The riddle of pyramids nonplused people since they have been constructed. The most ancient Greeks vaguely represented for themselves their mission, Romans knew even less, medieval Arabs believed that they are treasuries with magic guards, raneshny European observers considered them as Joseph’s bible granaries. The nineteenth century became a gold era of opening Beltsoni, Pitri, Marietta, Maspero and Lepsiusa, all of them considered that pyramids were storages of royal tombs and anything more. It was as well blossoming for пирамидологов such as Pyazzi Smith and David Davidson which argued that their sizes in «pyramidal inches» prove advantage of Christianity and the Jewish origin of builders of pyramids.
At present archeologists meet that function of pyramids consisted in preservation (the double of the Pharaoh): actual force which proceeds from the bo-hectare-sun on his son tsar who distributes it in the middle of own citizens and on the earth of Egypt. Mummification, funeral rituals, incorrect doors for an exit "oh" (souls), models of servants (an igurka шабти) and kazhdogodny gifts – everything has been created for this purpose that it was charmed by the afterlife, similar to own former existence. Such makary the social order remained in eternity, and primary chaos kept under control – this subject is brightly reflected in reliefs of tombs of Sakkara. At other level of symbolism the pyramidal form simulates primary hillock of a dawn of a universe, the invariable subject of an old Egyptian cosmogony which is reflecting in megalytic бенбенах and the obelisks which pyramidal tops have been covered with a sparkling electron.
Though the calcareous spur on the brink of the Libyan Desert was an inexhaustible source of a construction material, for furnish of pyramids finer stone in Round on other river bank was extracted or delivered from Aswan (in the Top Egypt). To make blocks, used wood wedges (at a namokaniye wedges inflate, increasing трещинкы) and a copper chisel; then them delivered on rafts to the place of construction of pyramids where final processing and polishing was made. Delivery coincided with floods of Nile (July-November) when its waters washed the basis of a plateau and Egyptians were released from agricultural works.
The Greek historian of the 5th century BC Herodotus knows that construction of the road and ground embankments needed 10 years of work of a hundred part тыщ slaves and 20 more years for construction of Stately pyramid of Cheops. Archeologists during the current time consider that the most part of workers at all were not slaves, and were peasants with whom for service life within 3 months paid in food (have been found papyruses in what the amount of the given-out lentil, onions and leek has been listed). Also at construction of pyramid of Cheops it has been employed a little тыщ skilled handicraftsmen. One of theories says that round a pyramid one stage which rose in process of pyramid growth was constructed. After the zamkovy stone kept within, the top layer was mounted from top to down, and the stage decreased. Not so long ago other embankments which conduct from the pyramid basis to a stone quarry have been found. Certainly, pulleys were used only for lifting of those blocks which closed corridors and the entrance, all other stones moved by means of levers and skating rinks. By estimates of researchers for century of more active construction of pyramids 25 million tons of a material have been spent.
Irrespective of, whether the most ancient Egyptians considered this work as a religious duty, powerful collecting labour achieved effective bureaucracy. Properly, construction of pyramids promoted society consolidation. Decline of construction has coincided with falling of the Old kingdom which two periods of anarchy (the 1st and 2nd transition periods and the short-lived Average kingdom (the XII dynasty) have followed. Up the time of the New kingdom other signs were registered on more pertinent. Remembering plunder of pyramids, governors of the New kingdom preferred to build the hidden tombs in the Plain of Tsars.

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